Nanoparticle stabilizer type, casting solution additives, and nanoparticle processing by centrifugal or magnetic separation were varied, and specific membrane characteristics were evaluated. Specifically, membrane casting solution viscosity, cast membrane thickness, pure water flux, and internal morphology were evaluated. While the addition of the additives ethanol and polyvinylpyrrolidone to a polyethersulfone-dimethylacetamide solution causes an expected increase in viscosity, the addition of nanoparticles can cause an increase or decrease in viscosity depending on the ligand stabilizer used during nanoparticle synthesis and casting solution additive concentration. Viscosity can also be affected by nanoparticle separation method, but again, changes are also dependent on casting solution composition. Varying changes in membrane thickness are observed and can be correlated to viscosity. Pure water flux decreases for all samples when nanoparticles are added, but the extent of the change is affected by casting solution composition. Internal morphology can partially explain the decrease in flux for nanoparticle-embedded membranes.
Iron nanoparticles, phase inversion membrane, polyethersulfone, additives, ethanol, polyvinylpyrrolidone