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The Impact of Bromine- and Phosphorous-Based Flame Retardants on Flame Stability and Heat Feedback from Laminar Wall Flames

Published

Author(s)

Isaac T. Leventon, Stanislav I. Stoliarov, Roland H. Kraemer

Abstract

To develop new, efficient flame retardants, it is critical to understand the exact mechanisms by which they inhibit flaming combustion. Our research group has developed a systematic methodology to assess the flammability of polymeric materials through microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and experimental measurement of flame heat feedback and material burning behavior during upward flame spread. In this work, that experimental framework is used to quantify the mechanisms of action of bromine- and phosphorous-based flame retardants. Here, a series of experiments was conducted in which flame heat transfer and sample mass loss rate were measured as a flame spread over 7 cm tall, 5 cm wide glass-reinforced PBT samples manufactured with increasing amounts (12, 16, and 24 wt %) of the brominated flame retardant, poly(pentabromobenzyl acrylate) (trade name: FR 1025). In an additional series of tests, similar measurements were obtained for PBT samples manufactured with increasing amounts (8, 12, 16, and 20 wt %) of the phosphorous-based flame retardant, aluminum diethyl-phosphinate (trade name: Exolit OP 1230). These tests allow for the study of the impact of flame retardants on key features of the system including: peak flame heat flux, flame stability, and condensed phase decomposition behaviors (i.e. charring). Current measurements identify an optimal loading concentration of Exolit OP 1230 for the PBT samples tested in this work, identify each flame retardant’s impacts on char yield and heat of combustion, and indicate that bromine- and phosphorous-based flame retardants (at least at the concentrations tested here) do not affect flame to surface heat transfer in the continuous region of wall flames and do not have a significant effect on flame stability at ignition.
Volume
109
Conference Dates
September 12-14, 2018
Conference Location
Nancy
Conference Title
3rd ESFSS / European Symposium on Fire Safety Science

Keywords

Flame retardants, wall flames, heat transfer, flame stability, flame spread

Citation

Leventon, I. , Stoliarov, S. and Kraemer, R. (2019), The Impact of Bromine- and Phosphorous-Based Flame Retardants on Flame Stability and Heat Feedback from Laminar Wall Flames, 3rd ESFSS / European Symposium on Fire Safety Science, Nancy, -1, [online], https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2019.05.001 (Accessed December 9, 2021)
Created May 3, 2019, Updated August 20, 2020