Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Hybrid integrated quantum photonic circuits



Ali Elshaari, Wolfram Pernice, Kartik Srinivasan, Oliver Benson, Val Zwiller


Recent development in chip-based photonic quantum circuits has radically impacted the ways in which we can process quantum information. However, it is challenging for any one specific integrated photonics platform to meet the stringent demands for most quantum applications. Hybrid platforms that combine different photonic materials in a single functional unit have great potential to overcome the limitations of current photonic circuits. This idea is now being transferred to quantum technology. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art of quantum technologies that can be implemented in a hybrid photonic circuit platform. We discuss the technical considerations in building such a platform, introduce first successful realizations, and address the remaining outstanding requirements for future practical applications.
Nature Photonics


Elshaari, A. , Pernice, W. , Srinivasan, K. , Benson, O. and Zwiller, V. (2020), Hybrid integrated quantum photonic circuits, Nature Photonics, [online],, (Accessed May 29, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created April 12, 2020, Updated October 12, 2021