Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Homogenization of Large Batch Frozen Materials Using the Palla-VM-KT Vibrating Mill



Debra Ellisor, Amanda Moors, Jennifer Hoguet, Jennifer Ness, Amanda Capuano, Olivia Franco


The Biospecimen Science Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Biorepository has been responsible for the curation, maintenance, and preparation of biological specimens at cryogenic temperatures since 2002. The team's expertise in cryohomogenization was leveraged to lead NIST's efforts in generating large batches of homogenous, fresh-frozen materials using a Palla VM-KT Vibrating mill. Most of these materials are part of the NIST SRM (Standard Reference Material) program, aiding collaborators and stakeholders in verifying the accuracy of measurements, calibrating instruments, and/or supporting the development of new measurement methods. Collaborating institutions can also request cryohomogenization of matrices for their own specific use. This report outlines important considerations and required preparations prior to cryomilling and describes the procedure for operating the cryomill at the NIST Biorepository.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1196r1
Report Number


biorepository, cryohomogenization, reference material.


Ellisor, D. , Moors, A. , Hoguet, J. , Ness, J. , Capuano, A. and Franco, O. (2024), Homogenization of Large Batch Frozen Materials Using the Palla-VM-KT Vibrating Mill, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 13, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 21, 2024