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Handbook for VVSG 2.0 Usability and Accessibility Test Strategies



Whitney Quesenbery, Sharon J. Laskowski


This document provides guidance and resources for how to test voting systems against the usability and accessibility requirements in the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG) 2.0. The requirements include Principles 2.2 and 5 through 8. The goal of those requirements is to ensure that voting systems certified to VVSG 2.0 are accessible and usable for election workers and voters—including voters with disabilities—so that every voter can mark, review, cast, and verify their ballot independently and privately. The primary audiences for this guide are the voting system test laboratory organizations who perform certification testing, to help them understand some of the specialized tests required, and organizations in the design and development process as they build and prepare a voting system for certification testing.
OTHER - VTS 400-5
Report Number
VTS 400-5


accessibility testing, human factors, user-centered design, usability testing, Voluntary Voting System Guidelines, voting systems, voting system certification, VVSG.


Quesenbery, W. and Laskowski, S. (2023), Handbook for VVSG 2.0 Usability and Accessibility Test Strategies, OTHER, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed April 16, 2024)
Created January 25, 2023