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Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis



William Riley, David A. Howe


This handbook, which can be used as both a tutorial and a reference, describes practical techniques for frequency stability analysis. It covers the definitions of frequency stability, measuring systems and data formats, pre-processing steps, analysis tools and methods, post-processing steps, and reporting suggestions. Examples are included for many of these techniques.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1065
Report Number


Allan variance, flicker noise, frequency, noise, phase, stability, Theo, time, total variance, white noise


Riley, W. and Howe, D. (2008), Handbook of Frequency Stability Analysis, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 19, 2024)


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Created June 30, 2008, Updated October 12, 2021