Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Generation of Ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division



Tara Fortier, Matthew S. Kirchner, Jennifer A. Taylor, James C. Bergquist, Yanyi Jiang, Andrew Ludlow, Christopher W. Oates, Till P. Rosenband, Scott Diddams, Franklyn Quinlan, Nathan D. Lemke


A frequency-stabilized femtosecond laser optical frequency comb serves as a source of microwave signals having very low close-to-carrier phase noise. Comparison of two independent systems shows combined absolute phase noise of -100 dBc/Hz at an offset of 1 Hz from the 10 GHz carrier. The corresponding timing jitter is 2 fs, integrated from 1 Hz to 1 MHz.
Nature Photonics


frequency comb, phase noise, microwave synthesis


Fortier, T. , Kirchner, M. , Taylor, J. , Bergquist, J. , Jiang, Y. , Ludlow, A. , Oates, C. , Rosenband, T. , Diddams, S. , Quinlan, F. and Lemke, N. (2011), Generation of Ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division, Nature Photonics, [online], (Accessed April 15, 2024)
Created June 25, 2011, Updated October 12, 2021