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Gap Analysis for Key Interoperability Scenarios in Election Technology



John Dziurłaj, Benjamin Long


This document describes potential use-cases for data interoperability in election technology components not previously considered in past efforts. Such components include on-demand ballot printing systems, remote ballot marking systems and electronic poll books. Each component is described along with a set of generalized functions it performs. Existing common data formats are considered for their applicability to component functions. Where gaps are found, suggestions to enhance interoperability are described.
Grant/Contract Reports (NISTGCR) - GCR 22-033
Report Number
GCR 22-033


Common data format, Election technology, Electronic poll books, On-demand ballot printing, Remote ballot marking.


Dziurłaj, J. and Long, B. (2022), Gap Analysis for Key Interoperability Scenarios in Election Technology, Grant/Contract Reports (NISTGCR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed May 21, 2024)


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Created August 1, 2022, Updated November 17, 2023