Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Fluorinated Copolymer Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging Applications



Mark M. Bailey, Christine M. Mahoney, Elodie Dempah, Jeffrey M. Davis, Matthew Becker, Supang Khondee, Eric J. Munson, Cory J. Berkland


Nanomaterials have emerged as valuable tools in biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescence, positron emission tomography (PET), and others. Some have been designed to serve as multimodal imaging agents, combining seemingly disparate techniques such as fluorescence, photoacoustic tomography (PAT), or positron emission tomography (PET) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Combining different imaging modalities into a single contrast agent enables one to capture meaningful images at different levels of spatial resolution from the same sample. Here, the one-step synthesis of a colloidally stable, fluorinated polymeric nanoparticle suitable for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging and MRI is reported. The nanoparticles had a size distribution with maxima at 250 nm and 700 nm according to dynamic light scattering. After adding Tween-20 and sonicating for 4 hours, the distribution maxima shifted to 250 nm and 550 nm. Secondary ion mass spectrometry showed a strong fluorine signal, suggesting that the nanoparticles would be suitable for SIMS imaging techniques. Solid-state 19F-NMR (ssNMR) was used to help further elucidate the structure of the particles and validate their use as MRI contrast agents. The spectrum suggests that in vivo studies will require selective excitation due to the different fluorine chemical shifts present in the particles.
Macromolecular Rapid Communications


diagnostic imaging, fluorinated contrast agents, free radical polymerization, magnetic resonance imaging, SIMS


Bailey, M. , Mahoney, C. , Dempah, E. , Davis, J. , Becker, M. , Khondee, S. , Munson, E. and J., C. (2010), Fluorinated Copolymer Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging Applications, Macromolecular Rapid Communications (Accessed June 16, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 18, 2010, Updated February 19, 2017