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Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator: Design, Operation, and Performance (NIST SP 965)



Thomas G. Cleary, Michelle K. Donnelly, William L. Grosshandler


This paper describes the fire emulator/detector evaluator which was developed by NIST. The FE/DE has proven to be a very flexible design. The main function of the device is to reproduce the environment (temperature, air velocity, aerosol and gas species concentrations) a detector would be exposed to during fire and non-fire events. It has been used primarily for fire detection, but may prove useful in testing other types of sensors such as those used for indoor air quality assessment, building HVAC control, or hazardous gas monitoring. The FE/DE is a single-pass "wind tunnel" that allows for the control of the flow velocity, air temperature, gas species, and aerosol concentrations at a test section wherein detectors and sensors are exposed to these environmental conditions.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 965
Report Number


fire detection, fire detection systems, fire detectors, smoke, aerosols


Cleary, T. , Donnelly, M. and Grosshandler, W. (2001), Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator: Design, Operation, and Performance (NIST SP 965), Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 22, 2024)


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Created February 1, 2001, Updated November 10, 2018