Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Field Test of a Photovoltaic Water Heater



Arthur H. Fanney, Brian P. Dougherty, J O. Richardson


A solar photovoltaic water heating system has been installed at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The system provides hot water for the restroom facilities at the Park's main visitor center. This paper gives an overview of the technology, describes the installation, and summarizes the performance of the system.The initial scope of the project was to install and monitor the performance of the photovoltaic solar hot water system for 12 months. As the study progressed, it was broadened to study the effects of water conservation measures.
ASHRAE Transactions
No. 2


Gatlinberg, Great Smoky Mountains, National Park Service, NIST, photovoltaic, Renewable energy, solar, TVA, water heating system


Fanney, A. , Dougherty, B. and Richardson, J. (2002), Field Test of a Photovoltaic Water Heater, ASHRAE Transactions, [online], (Accessed July 14, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 1, 2002, Updated February 19, 2017