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Feedback cooled Bose-Einstein condensation: near and far from equilibrium



Ian Spielman, Hilary Hurst, Evan Yamaguchi


Continuously measured interacting quantum systems almost invariably heat, causing loss of quantum coherence. Here we study Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) subject to repeated weak measurement of the atomic density and describe several protocols for generating a feedback signal designed to remove excitations created by measurement backaction. We use a stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation to model the system dynamics and find that a feedback protocol utilizing momentum dependant gain and filtering can effectively cool both 1D and 2D systems. The performance of these protocols is quantified in terms of the steady state energy, entropy, and condensate fraction. These are the first feedback cooling protocols demonstrated in 2D, and in 1D our optimal protocol reduces the equilibrium energy by more than a factor of 100 as compared with a previous cooling protocol developed using the same methodology. We also use this protocol to quench-cool 1D BECs from non-condensed highly excited states and find that they rapidly condense into a far from equilibrium state with energy orders of magnitude higher than the equilibrium ground state energy. We explain this in terms of the near-integrability of our 1D system, whereby efficiently cooled low momentum modes are effectively decoupled from the energetic 'reservoir' of the higher momentum modes. We observe that the quench-cooled condensed states can have non-zero integer winding numbers described by quantized super-currents.
Physical Review A (Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics)


Spielman, I. , Hurst, H. and Yamaguchi, E. (2023), Feedback cooled Bose-Einstein condensation: near and far from equilibrium, Physical Review A (Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics), [online], (Accessed June 15, 2024)


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Created June 13, 2023, Updated November 20, 2023