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Experiments toward Non-contact Safety Standards for Automated Industrial Vehicles



Roger V. Bostelman, Tsai Hong Hong, Rajmohan Madhavan


The performance evaluation of an obstacle detection and segmentation algorithm is explained upon comparing a new range camera to ground truth. Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) in factory-like environments may one day utilize this algorithm for advanced vehicle navigation along with using a new 3D real-time range camera. Our approach expands on the US and British Safety Standards, which allow for non-contact safety sensors on vehicles, by performing tests on objects specifically sized in both standards. These successful tests placed the recommended, as well as smaller, material-covered and sized objects on the vehicle path for static measurement. The segmented (mapped) obstacles were then verified in range to the objects and object size using simultaneous, absolute, ground truth measurements obtained from a relatively accurate 2D scanning laser rangefinder. The 3D range cameras are expected to be relatively inexpensive, used indoors and possibly one day used outdoors for several potential mobile robot applications that build upon experimental results explained in this paper.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of the SPIE Defense and Security Symposium
Conference Dates
March 28-April 1, 2005
Conference Location
Kissimmee, FL
Conference Title
SPIE Defense and Security Symposium


3D range camera, ground truth, LADAR/LIDAR/Sensors, obstacle segmentation, real-time, Robotics & Intelligent Systems, safety standard, Unmanned Systems


Bostelman, R. , , T. and Madhavan, R. (2006), Experiments toward Non-contact Safety Standards for Automated Industrial Vehicles, Proceedings of the SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Kissimmee, FL, [online], (Accessed April 19, 2024)
Created June 28, 2006, Updated February 19, 2017