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Evaporation of a Small Aqueous Suppressing Agent Droplet (NISTIR 5904)



W. S. Chien, Jiann C. Yang, M D. King, William L. Grosshandler


Due to its ozone-depleting potential, halon 1301 (CF3Br) has been banned from production under the Montreal Protocol. The research for halon replacement(s) has led to the reconsideration of using water in certain applications. However, under cold storage conditions (below 0DGC) water will freeze, thus posing a limitation in low temperature operations. Certain additives, if selected properly, not only can suppress the freezing point of water but also can improve its fire suppression effectiveness. Some water-based agents have recently been proven to be more effective than pure water when used in the form of mist to suppress a small JP-8 pool fire. Among the thirteen agents they tested, potassium lactate (60% w/w) and potassium acetate (60% w/w) were found to be far superior than pure water and other candidate solutions.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 5904
Report Number


fire research, fire science, droplets, halon alternatives, evaporation


Chien, W. , Yang, J. , King, M. and Grosshandler, W. (1996), Evaporation of a Small Aqueous Suppressing Agent Droplet (NISTIR 5904), NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed July 22, 2024)


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Created September 30, 1996, Updated October 12, 2021