Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Estimation of uncertainty in application profiles



David W. Flater


Performance is an important facet of software quality, and application profiling tools are the instruments used to measure software performance at the function and application levels. The most powerful measurement method available in application profiling tools today is sampling-based profiling, where a potentially unmodified application is interrupted based on some event to collect data on what it was doing when the interrupt occurred. It is well known that sampling introduces statistical uncertainty that must be taken into account when interpreting results; however, factors affecting the variability have not been well-studied. In attempting to validate two previously published analytical estimates, we obtained negative results. Furthermore, we found that the variability is strongly influenced by at least one factor, self-time fragmentation, that cannot be determined from the data yielded by sampling alone. We investigate this and conclude with recommendations for obtaining valid estimates of uncertainty under the conditions that exist.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Quality Software
Conference Dates
October 2-3, 2014
Conference Location
Dallas, TX
Conference Title
QSIC 2014 (14th International Conference on Quality Software)


Software, performance, measurement, profiling, uncertainty


Flater, D. (2014), Estimation of uncertainty in application profiles, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Quality Software, Dallas, TX (Accessed July 21, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 3, 2014, Updated February 19, 2017