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Enhancement of R123 Pool Boiling by the Addition of N-Hexane (NISTIR 5780)



Mark A. Kedzierski


This paper presents the heat transfer data used to file international patent WO 94/18282. The data consisted of pool boiling performance of a GEWA-TTM surface for three fluids: (1) pure R123, (2) R123/n-hexane (99/1), and (3) R123/n-hexane (98/2). The heat flux and the wall superheat were measured for each fluid at 277.6 K. A (47 + 7)% increase over the pure R123 heat flux was achieved with the addition of 1% mass hexane to R123. Similarly, the R123/hexane (99/2) mixture gave a maximum percent heat flux enhancement over pure R123 of (29 + 7)%. The boiling was filmed with a 16 mm high-speed camera. The observations were used to describe various boiling modes on the GEWA-TTM surface. The addition of hexane to pure R123 caused a simultaneous reduction in the bubble diameter and increase in the site density. The increase in site density enhanced the boiling despite the reduction in bubble size. Presumably, the site density enhancement was caused by a layer enriched in hexane at the heat transfer surface. The addition of hexane to R123 also improved natural convection. The natural convection was influenced by the greater thermal conductivity of the excess layer which may have contained 55% mass hexane.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 5780
Report Number


building technology, additives, enhanced heat transfer, fluid heating, GEWA-T, pool boiling, R123, thermal conductivity


Kedzierski, M. (1996), Enhancement of R123 Pool Boiling by the Addition of N-Hexane (NISTIR 5780), NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 27, 2024)


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Created March 1, 1996, Updated November 10, 2018