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Effects of Addition of Mannitol Crystals on the Porosity and Dissolution Rates of a Calcium Phosphate Cement



Debra Vazquez, Shozo Takagi, Stanislav Frukhtbeyn, Laurence Chow


The bone defect repair functions of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) are related to its osteoconductivity and its gradual replacement by new bone. Adding mannitol to CPC may enhance its bone repair potential by increasing CPCs macroporosity and dissolution rate. The objective of the study was to assess microporosity and macroporosity and dissolution rates for CPC mixed with mannitol. Three groups of CPC discs were prepared by combining an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate with (0, 10, or 50) mass% of mannitol. Macroporosity and microporosity of the samples were calculated from volume and mass measurements of the discs. Discs were then placed in a pH 3.0 demineralizing solution simulating acidified physiological solution, and dissolution rates were measured by a previously described constant-composition titration method. Pure CPC exhibited 0% macropores and microporosity (mean s.d.; n = 5) of (46.8 0.8) vol%. Adding 10 mass% mannitol resulted in 15.6 3.9 vol% macroporosity and 39.4 1.8 vol% microporosity, and adding 50 mass% mannitol produced 54.7 0.8 vol% macroporosity and 21.1 0.4 vol% microporosity. The dissolution rates (mean s.d.; n = 5) of CPC with (0, 10, and 50) mass% mannitol incorporation were (30.6 3.4, 44.8 10.2, and 54.7 3.6, respectively) g cm-2 min-1, or (0.018 0.002, 0.032 0.007, and 0.072 0.005, respectively) L cm-2 min-1. Adding either 10 mass% or 50 mass% mannitol into CPC significantly (p < 0.05) increased CPC dissolution rates. Adding mannitol readily increased macroporosity and dissolution rate of CPC, which may enhance the capacity of CPC to be osteoconductive.
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -


Calcium Phosphate Cement, dissolution rate, porosity, mannitol crystal, mechanical properties.


Vazquez, D. , Takagi, S. , Frukhtbeyn, S. and Chow, L. (2010), Effects of Addition of Mannitol Crystals on the Porosity and Dissolution Rates of a Calcium Phosphate Cement, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed March 1, 2024)
Created July 31, 2010, Updated October 12, 2021