Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Dynamic laser absorptance measured in a geometrically characterized stainless steel powder



Brian Simonds, Edward Garboczi, Todd A. Palmer, Paul Williams


The increased deployment and development of additive manufacturing (AM) has made it imperative to understand the interaction between a focused laser beam and a metal powder bed. The AM process is inherently dynamic meaning that the interaction must be studied as the material transitions from an unperturbed powder through melting and vapor cavity (keyhole) formation. In this work, we measure the dynamic absorptance of a stainless steel metal powder over two orders of magnitude in focused laser power using an integrating sphere technique. Furthermore, we combine these measurements with x-ray computed tomography (XCT) measurements of powder dispersed in epoxy and undisturbed packed metal powder, which gives the particle shape and size distributions, and the 3D powder structure in the as-spread powder. Together these represent a complete data set for understanding focused laser interacting with a metal powder for AM model validation.
Physical Review Applied


Additive Manufacturing, Laser Processing, Optical Properties


Simonds, B. , Garboczi, E. , Palmer, T. and Williams, P. (2019), Dynamic laser absorptance measured in a geometrically characterized stainless steel powder, Physical Review Applied, [online],, (Accessed May 29, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created December 22, 2019, Updated May 13, 2021