Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Droplet Size Distributions in the Spray from Commercial 'Fogger' Type Pepper Spray Products



Alim A. Fatah, Cary Presser, Edward V. White


Commercial pepper sprays devices deliver a coherent liquid stream or an aerosol from a pressurized canister. It is likely that some of the droplets from the aerosol-type pepper sprays inhaled during its use to assist in subduing individuals resisting arrest. Since smaller particles can penetrate deeper into the lung and may present a greater health risk, it is important to know the diameter of the particles expelled aerosol droplets. This investigation used laser Phase Doppler Inferometry (PDI) to measure the droplet size distributions of four different sets of commercially available canisters.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - IR 7395
Report Number
IR 7395


aerosol, canister, droplets, oleoresin capsicum (OC), particle size, pepper spray, Phase Doppler Inferometry


Fatah, A. , Presser, C. and White, E. (2007), Droplet Size Distributions in the Spray from Commercial 'Fogger' Type Pepper Spray Products, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (Accessed March 1, 2024)
Created January 31, 2007, Updated October 12, 2021