The development of DNA-based sensors for genetic assay and sequencing applications has exploded over the last decade. Nearly all of these devices rely on the hybridization of a complementary oligonucleotide with surface-confined, single-stranded DNA or RNA, so-called probes, for measuring nucleic acid analytes. In this review, the basic anatomy, fabrication, operating principles, transduction strategies, and applications of DNA-based sensors are described. Recent developments in DNA-based sensors using electrochemical, optical, mass, scanning probe, or microcantilever transduction are reviewed. In addition, the development of DNA-based sensors for measuring other analytes such as proteins, metal ions, and small organic molecules is also examined.
Biomolecular Films: Design, Function, and Applications