In most industrial facilities, existing control, engineering and administrative systems operate on computer systems from many different manufacturers and use many different data systems. They have existing independently designed, and therefore overlapping, databases, further complicated by logical and physical differences in the representation of the same real- world objects from database to database. But the most important characteristics of these systems are that they are the data repositories for the current manufacturing enterprise, that the existing application programs depend on them, and that the validity of their data depends on those application programs. The ideal integrated data system, therefore, cooperates with the existing applications on the existing databases, while enabling new application programs to be built which use these databases in new or improved ways, expanding the capabilities of the enterprise, and which are insulated from accidental distinction in data location, representation and access mechanisms.
Distributed Data Interfaces--the Lessons of IMDAS, Proceedings of CIM Databases '88 Conference, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=821011
(Accessed February 27, 2024)