, Ross N. Andrews, Ivan Kuzmenko, Pete R. Jemian, ,
Following many years of evolutionary development, first at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and then at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, the APS ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) facility has been transformed by several new developments. These comprise a conversion to higher-order crystal optics and higher X-ray energies as the standard operating mode, rapid fly-scan measurements also as a standard operational mode, automated, contiguous pinhole small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements at intermediate scattering vectors, and associated rapid wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements for X-ray diffraction without disturbing the sample geometry. With each mode using the USAXS incident beam optics upstream of the sample, USAXS/SAXS/WAXS measurements can now be made within five minutes, allowing in situ and operando measurement capabilities with great flexibility under a wide range of sample conditions. These developments are described, together with examples of their application to investigate materials phenomena of technological importance. Developments of the novel USAXS applications: USAXS-based X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (USAXS-XPCS) and USAXS imaging, are also briefly reviewed.
Journal of Applied Crystallography
small-angle X-ray scattering, microstructure characterization, in situ structure characterization, advanced materials, synchrotron radiation