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Development of an Apparatus for Full Ensemble Testing of Fire Fighter Protective Clothing



D W. Stroup, W H. Twilley


The Thermal Protective Performance (TPP) test was developed to quantify the performance of fire fighter protective clothing ensembles under an intense thermal exposure. This test method has certainly helped to improve the thermal protection of fire fighter protective clothing. However, many fire service burn injuries can be traced to significantly lower thermal exposures than are represented simulated by the TPP test. This report describes a full-scale test apparatus and a method for measuring the thermal performance of fire fighters protective clothing under low thermal exposures. Temperature measurements are obtained on the surface of the outer shell, at locations between the fabric or moisture barrier layers inside the protective clothing system, and at the thermal liner surface. When plotted, these temperature measurements show a detailed picture of how a protective clothing system performs when exposed to a given thermal environment.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) -


burns (injuries), fire fighters, fire fighting equipment, heat transfer, large scale fire tests, mannequins, protective clothing, test methods, thermal protective performance test


Stroup, D. and Twilley, W. (1999), Development of an Apparatus for Full Ensemble Testing of Fire Fighter Protective Clothing, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 20, 2024)
Created October 1, 1999, Updated February 17, 2017