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Developing Frequency-Domain Models for Nonlinear Microwave Devices Based on Large-Signal Measurements



Jeffrey Jargon, Kuldip Gupta, Donald C. DeGroot


In this paper, we introduce nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters, a new type of frequency-domain mapping that related incident and reflected signals. A general form of nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters is presented. It is shownt that they reduce to classic S-parameters in the absence of nonlinearities. Nonlinear large-signal impedance and admittance parameters are also introduced, and equations relating the different representations are derived. We illustrate how nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters can be used as a tool in the design process of a nonlinear circuit, specifically a single-diode 1 GHz frequency-doubler. For the case where a nonlinear model is not readily availabke, a method of extracting nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters is developed using artificial neural network models trained with multiple measurements made by a nonlinear vector network analyzer equipped with two sources. Finally, nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters are compared to another form of nonlinear mapping, known as nonlinear scattering functions. The nonlinear larg-signal scattering parameters are shown to be more general.
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -


frequency-domain, large-signal, measurement, microwave, model, network analyzer, nonlinear, scattering parameter


Jargon, J. , Gupta, K. and DeGroot, D. (2004), Developing Frequency-Domain Models for Nonlinear Microwave Devices Based on Large-Signal Measurements, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (Accessed September 27, 2023)
Created July 31, 2004, Updated October 12, 2021