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Derivable genetic programming for two-dimensional colloidal materials



Nathan Mahynski, Bliss Han, Daniel Markiewitz, Vincent K. Shen


We describe a method for deriving surface functionalization patterns for colloidal systems that can induce self-assembly into any chosen periodic symmetry at a planar interface. The result is a sequence of letters, s ∈ A,T,C,G}, or a gene, that describes the perimeter of the colloidal object and programs its self-assembly. This represents a genome that is finite and can be exhaustively enumerated. These genes derive from symmetry, which may be topologically represented by two-dimensional parabolic orbifolds; since these orbifolds are surfaces that may be derived from first principles, this represents an ab initio route to colloid functionality. The genes are human readable and can be employed to easily design colloidal units. We employ a biological (genetic) analogy to demonstrate this and illustrate their connection to the designs of Maurits Cornelis (M. C.) Escher.
The Journal of Chemical Physics


material design, colloids, self-assembly


Mahynski, N. , Han, B. , Markiewitz, D. and Shen, V. (2022), Derivable genetic programming for two-dimensional colloidal materials, The Journal of Chemical Physics, [online],, (Accessed May 18, 2024)


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Created September 21, 2022, Updated September 13, 2023