Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Cybersecurity Framework Profile for Hybrid Satellite Networks (HSN)



Dan Mamula, Karri Meldorf, Joseph Brule, O’Ryan Lattin, John Wiltberger, Sam Sepassi, Rory Jennings, Chris Thorpe, John Dombrowski, Jim McCarthy


The space sector is transitioning towards Hybrid Satellite Networks (HSN) which is an aggregation of independently owned and operated terminals, antennas, satellites, payloads, or other components that comprise a satellite system. The elements of an HSN may have varying levels of assurance. HSNs may interact with government systems and critical infrastructure (as defined by the Department of Homeland Security). A framework is required to assess the security posture of the individual components while still enabling the HSN to provide its function. This report applies the NIST Cybersecurity Framework to HSNs with an emphasis on the interfaces between the participants of the HSN. In collaboration with subject matter experts including satellite builders, consultants, acquisition authorities, operators (commercial and government), academia, and other interested parties, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed the HSN Cybersecurity Framework CSF Profile (HSN Profile) to guide space stakeholders. The resulting profile provides a starting point for stakeholders who are assessing the cybersecurity posture of their HSN.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 8441
Report Number


Cybersecurity Framework, Hybrid satellite networks, HSN, hosted payload, payload, payload control center, PCC, shared services, virtual payload command center.


Mamula, D. , Meldorf, K. , brule, J. , Lattin, O. , Wiltberger, J. , Sepassi, S. , Jennings, R. , Thorpe, C. , Dombrowski, J. and McCarthy, J. (2023), Cybersecurity Framework Profile for Hybrid Satellite Networks (HSN), NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed May 30, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created September 25, 2023