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Cryogenics on a Chip



Jukka Pekola, Rob Schoelkopf, Joel Ullom


Low-temperature techniques often bring to mind cryogenic liquids, gas compressors, and massive installations. But researchers are now building refrigerators and sensors that work by controlling electrons on a silicon chip.
Physics Today


Cryogenic sensors, Microrefrigerators, NIS junctions


Pekola, J. , Schoelkopf, R. and Ullom, J. (2004), Cryogenics on a Chip, Physics Today (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created May 2, 2004, Updated October 12, 2021