Cryocoolers: State of the art and recent developments
Cryocooler performance and reliability are continually improving. Consequently, they are more and more frequently implemented by physicists in their laboratory experiments or for commercial and space applications. The five types of cryocoolers most commonly used to provide cryogenic temperatures for various applications are the Joule-Thomson, Brayton, Stirling, Gifford-McMahon, and pulse tube cryocoolers. Many advances in all types have occurred in the past twenty years that have allowed all of them to be used for a wide variety of applications. The present state of the art and on going developments of these cryocoolers is reviewed in this paper. In the past five years new research on these cryocoolers offers the potential to significantly improve them and make them suitable for even more applications. The general trend of this new cryocooler research is also presented.
Cryocoolers: State of the art and recent developments, Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=901013
(Accessed February 22, 2024)