Conformation and Dynamics of Abasic Sites in DNA Investigated by Time-Resolved Fluorescence of 2-Aminopurine
E L. Rachofsky, E Seibert, J T. Stivers, R Osman, J B. Ross
asic sites are highly mutagenic lesions in DNA that arise as intermediates in the excision repair of modified bases. These sites are generated by the action of damage-specific DNA glycosylases, and are converted into downstream intermediates by the specific activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases. Enzymes in both families have been observed in crystal structures to impose deformations on the abasic-site DNA, including DNA kinking and base flipping. Based on these apparent protein-induced deformations, we propose that altered conformation and dynamics of abasic sites may contribute to the specificity of these repair enzymes. Previously, measurements of the steady-state fluorescence of the adenine analogue 2-aminopurine (2AP) opposite an abasic site demonstrated that binding of divalent cations could induce a conformational change that increased the accessibility of 2AP to solute quenching (Stivers, J.T. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26:3837-44). We have performed time-resolved fluorescence experiments to characterize the states involved in this conformational change. Interpretation of these studies is based on a recently developed model attributing the static and dynamic fluorescence quenching of 2AP in DNA to aromatic stacking and collisional interactions with neighboring bases, respectively (see the preceding paper). The time-resolved fluorescence results indicate that divalent cation binding shifts the equilibrium of the abasic site between two conformations: a 'closed' state, characterized by short average fluorescence lifetime and complex decay kinetics; and an 'open' state, characterized by mono-exponential decay with lifetime approximately that of the free nucleoside. Because the lifetime and intensity decay kinetics of 2AP incorporated into DNA are sensitive primarily to collisional interactions with the neighboring bases, the absence of dynamic quenching in the 'open' state strongly suggests that the fluorescent base is extrahelical in this conformation. Consistent with this interpretation, time-resolved quenching studies reveal that the 'open' state is accessible to solute quenching by potassium iodide, but the 'closed' state is not. Greater static quenching is observed in the abasic site when the fluorescent base is flanked by 5' and 3' thymines than in the context of 5' and 3' adenines, indicating that 2AP is more stacked with the neighboring bases in the former sequence. These results imply that the conformation of the abasic site varies in a sequence-dependent manner. Undamaged sequences in which the abasic site is replaced by thymine do not exhibit an 'open' state, and have different levels of both static and dynamic quenching than their damaged homologues. These differences in structure and dynamics may be significant determinants of the high specific affinity of repair enzymes for the abasic site.
2-aminopurine, abasic DNA dynamics, time-resolved fluorescence, uracil DNA glycosylase
, Seibert, E.
, Stivers, J.
, Osman, R.
and Ross, J.
Conformation and Dynamics of Abasic Sites in DNA Investigated by Time-Resolved Fluorescence of 2-Aminopurine, Biochemistry
(Accessed December 11, 2023)