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Comparing LORAN Timing Capability to Industrial Requirements



Michael A. Lombardi


The telecommunications and electric power industries both operate systems that depend upon precise time synchronization or frequency control. These systems typically use signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites as their timing source, making them vulnerable to an extended GPS signal outage. This vulnerability has generated interest in LORAN as a redundant timing source. This paper discusses and interprets the stringent time and frequency requirements of three industrial applications: the frequency requirements for primary reference sources used in telecommunication networks, the timing requirements for base stations used for Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) wireless telephones, and the timing requirements for the phasor measurement units (PMUs) operated by the electric power industry. It briefly looks at what GPS is required to do for these applications and discusses the holdover capability of GPS disciplined oscillators. The paper then compares the current and future timing capability of LORAN to the previously described industrial requirements.
Proceedings Title
Proceeding of 2006 International Loran Association Meeting
Conference Dates
October 23, 2006-October 25, 2007
Conference Location
Groton, CT
Conference Title
2006 International Loran Association Meeting


CDMA, frequency, GPS, industrial requirements, LORAN, time


Lombardi, M. (2006), Comparing LORAN Timing Capability to Industrial Requirements, Proceeding of 2006 International Loran Association Meeting, Groton, CT, [online], (Accessed June 23, 2024)


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Created October 23, 2006, Updated January 27, 2020