To understand the extent of consumer exposure to nanomaterials as well as how nanomaterials impact consumer goods, it is necessary to detect and characterize nanomaterials in unmodified final products. Although there are pathways to characterize nanomaterials pre-formulation, once the nanomaterial has been processed into the final product, the number of methods available to detect and characterize the nanomaterial in an unmodified state decreases. Here we evaluate methods to detect and characterize nanoparticles in unmodified commercial products. At the initiation of the study, it was unknown if these products, namely over the counter sunscreens, contained nanomaterials. Of the methods tested, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were found to be viable and complementary methods for both detecting and characterizing nanoparticles in unmodified products.
Citation: Analytical Chemistry
Pub Type: Journals
sunscreen, nanotechnology, nano-methods, unmodified analysis, TiO2