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Characterization of bubbler performance for low-volatility liquid precursor delivery



James E. Maslar, William A. Kimes, Brent A. Sperling, Ravindra K. Kanjolia


The performance of a bubbler to deliver the low-volatility, liquid cobalt precursor μ2- η2-(tBu- acetylene) dicobalthexacarbonyl (CCTBA) for reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition processes was characterized. A relatively large process window was investigated by varying carrier gas flow rate, system pressure, and bubbler temperature. For this range of conditions, the CCTBA partial pressure was measured using a custom-designed non- dispersive infrared gas analyzer, and the CCTBA flow rates were derived from these partial pressure measurements. The dependence of CCTBA flow rate on these process parameters was modeled to obtain a deeper understanding of the factors influencing bubbler performance. Good agreement between measured and modeled CCTBA flow rates was obtained using a model in which a constant CCTBA partial pressure in the bubbler head space for a given bubbler temperature was assumed and in which the pressure drop between the bubbler head space and the pressure measurement location was included. The dependence of CCTBA head space partial pressure on temperature was parameterized in the form of the August equation, which is commonly used to describe the temperature-dependence of vapor pressure. While this report was focused specifically on CCTBA, the results are expected to apply to other low-volatility, liquid precursors of interest in vapor deposition processes.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A


ALD, atomic layer deposition, bubbler, CCTBA, CVD, chemical vapor deposition, non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer, NDIR, (tBu-acetylene) dicobalthexacarbonyl, precursor delivery


Maslar, J. , Kimes, W. , Sperling, B. and Kanjolia, R. (2019), Characterization of bubbler performance for low-volatility liquid precursor delivery, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, [online], (Accessed May 28, 2024)


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Created June 26, 2019, Updated November 29, 2020