Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

CFAST – Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (Version 7) Volume 3: Software Development and Model Evaluation Guide



Richard D. Peacock, Paul A. Reneke, Glenn P. Forney


This supplement to the CFAST Technical Reference Guide provides details of the software development process for CFAST and accompanying experimental evaluation of the model. It is based in part on the “Standard Guide for Evaluating the Predictive Capability of Deterministic Fire Models,” ASTM E 1355 [1]. ASTM E 1355 defines model evaluation as “the process of quantifying the accuracy of chosen results from a model when applied for a specific use.” The model evaluation process consists of two main components: verification and validation. Verification is a process to check the correctness of the solution of the governing equations. Verification does not imply that the governing equations are appropriate; only that the equations are being solved correctly. Validation is a process to determine the appropriateness of the governing equations as a mathematical model of the physical phenomena of interest. Typically, validation involves comparing model results with experimental measurement. Differences that cannot be explained in terms of numerical errors in the model or uncertainty in the measurements are attributed to the assumptions and simplifications of the physical model. Evaluation is critical to establishing both the acceptable uses and limitations of a model. Throughout its development, CFAST has undergone various forms of evaluation, both at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and beyond. This Supplement provides a survey of validation work conducted to date to evaluate CFAST.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1889v3
Report Number


Building fires, fire growth, fire modeling, hazard assessment, smoke transport


Peacock, R. , Reneke, P. and Forney, G. (2015), CFAST – Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (Version 7) Volume 3: Software Development and Model Evaluation Guide, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 21, 2024)
Created December 15, 2015, Updated June 2, 2021