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Cast Vote Records Common Data Format Specification Version 1.0



John P. Wack


This document is a specification for a common data format for cast vote records (CVR) produced by vote-capture devices such as ballot scanners. It supports the interoperable export of CVRs from these devices and the interoperable import and export of CVRs to/from election management systems, adjudication systems, and audit systems. The specification includes examples of XML and JSON usage.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1500-103
Report Number


Common data format (CDF), cast vote record (CVR), JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), unified markup language (UML), eXtensible Markup Language (XML).


Wack, J. (2019), Cast Vote Records Common Data Format Specification Version 1.0, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created November 19, 2019, Updated January 19, 2020