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Biomonitoring of emerging DINCH metabolites in pregnant women in Charleston, SC: 2011-2014



Abby G. Wenzel, Jessica L. Reiner, Satomi Kohno, Bethany J. Wolf, John W. Brock, Lori Cruze, Roger B. Newman


Due to the mounting evidence that phthalates produce adverse endocrine effects in humans and wildlife, the use of other chemicals as replacements has increased. One of the most commonly encountered phthalate replacement is di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). Currently, little is known about the prevalence of human exposure, bioactivity, and endocrine disrupting potential of DINCH. We sampled urine from 100 pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy living in Charleston, SC between 2011 and 2014 and measured the following DINCH metabolites by LC-MS/MS: cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy- isononyl) ester (OH-MINCH), cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(oxo-isononyl) ester (oxo- MINCH), and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-monocarboxy isooctyl ester (cx-MINCH). These metabolites were also tested on human estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor beta transactivation assays in vitro. OH-MINCH was detected in 98% of urine samples. The specific gravity-adjusted median (interquartile range) OH-MINCH concentration was 0.20 (0.25) ng/mL, and concentrations were significantly higher in African American women compared to Caucasian women (p = 0.01). DINCH metabolite concentrations were consistent between years, and they did not exhibit estrogenic or progestogenic activity in vitro. Human exposure to these emerging compounds should continue to be monitored, especially in vulnerable populations, to ensure the replacement of phthalates by DINCH is not a case of regrettable substitution.


DINCH, OH-MINCH, Exposure Scince, Biomonitoring, endocrine disrupting compounds


Wenzel, A. , Reiner, J. , Kohno, S. , Wolf, B. , Brock, J. , Cruze, L. and Newman, R. (2021), Biomonitoring of emerging DINCH metabolites in pregnant women in Charleston, SC: 2011-2014, Chemosphere, [online],, (Accessed May 20, 2024)


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Created December 31, 2020, Updated October 12, 2021