Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

BEES Online: Life Cycle Analysis for Building Products



Barbara C. Lippiatt, Anne L. Greig, Priya D. Lavappa


The BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) Online web application implements a rational, systematic technique for selecting environmentally-preferred, cost-effective building products. The technique is based on consensus standards and designed to be practical, flexible, and transparent. The decision support software--aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers--includes actual environmental and economic performance data for over 230 building products across a range of functional applications. BEES measures the environmental performance of building products using the environmental life-cycle assessment approach specified in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14040 standards. All stages in the life of a product are analyzed: raw material acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, and waste management. Economic performance is measured using the ASTM International standard life-cycle cost method (E917), which covers the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal. Environmental and economic performance are combined into an overall performance measure using the ASTM standard for Multiattribute Decision Analysis (E1765). For the entire BEES analysis, building products are defined and classified based on the ASTM standard classification for building elements known as UNIFORMAT II (E1557).
BEES Online


Building products, economic performance, environmental performance, green buildings, life cycle assessment, life-cycle costing, multiattribute decision analysis, sustainable development


Lippiatt, B. , Greig, A. and Lavappa, P. (2010), BEES Online: Life Cycle Analysis for Building Products, BEES Online, [online], (Accessed May 26, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created September 30, 2010, Updated February 19, 2017