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Analysis of the Happyland Social Club Fire With HAZARD I



Richard W. Bukowski, Robert C. Spetzler


The paper presents the reconstruction of the Happyland Social Club fire using the HAZARD I fire hazard assessment method along with an examination of four potential mitigation strategies: automatic sprinklers, a door at the base of the stairway to the second floor, a second means of egress from the second floor, or a noncombustible interior finish. The paper concludes that the traditional second means of egress might have not have eliminated the observed fatalities. and that the noncombustible interior finish or sprinkler options would, with the former being the more cost effective approach.
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering


hazard assessment, building fires, computer programs, hazard analysis, sprinklers, stairways, exits, costs, tenability limits, temperature, energy transfer, layer heights, oxygen concentration, carbon monoxide, fire investigations


Bukowski, R. and Spetzler, R. (1992), Analysis of the Happyland Social Club Fire With HAZARD I, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, [online], (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created December 31, 1992, Updated February 19, 2017