Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Amplifier and Transistor Noise-Parameter Measurements



James P. Randa


Methods for measuring the noise parameters of amplifiers and on-wafer transistors are reviewed. After some preliminary background information and conventions, noise parameters are defined and the most common measurement strategies are presented, both for packaged amplifiers and for on-wafer transistors (or amplifiers). The uncertainty analysis for such measurements is reviewed, and check and verification methods are presented.
Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering


amplifier noise, noise figure, noise parameters, noise-parameter uncertainty analysis, transistor noise, uncertainty analysis, verification methods


Randa, J. (2014), Amplifier and Transistor Noise-Parameter Measurements, Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, [online], http:/ (Accessed May 22, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 1, 2014, Updated January 27, 2020