Alternative Variables for Computing Sideband Pulling in Atomic Frequency Standards
Jon H. Shirley
Sideband pulling has long been considered a possible source of frequency bias in atomic frequency standards. We treat a two-level system excited by coherent radiation with amplitude and phase modulation. We create alternative variables to facilitate the second-order solution of the associated time-dependent Schrödinger nist-equation. We extend earlier work to include time-dependent excitation and initial phase dependence.
Proceedings of the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum