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All-Hazards Approach is Needed to Support Building Movement Strategies



N E. Groner


People face a variety of hazards in built environments. The emergency management field has developed various approaches applicable to building emergencies, and the "all-hazards" or "multi-hazards" approach is among the most potentially valuable. At all levels of government, from the Federal Emergency Management Agency to local governments, officials recognize that the same basic functions must be activated in response to any and all hazardous events. Unfortunately, at the level of building management, this is not typically the case. Even with its great concentration of large buildings, many New York City building owners and managers employ both fire safety and security directors who may not work well together during emergencies despite their interdependence on achieving favorable outcomes. Different people may organize an evacuation in response to a fire and a bomb threat. The current situation inhibits efficient and effective engineering mitigation and responses to building emergencies.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1032
Report Number


occupants, people movement, emergencies, hazard analysis, evacuation


Groner, N. (2005), All-Hazards Approach is Needed to Support Building Movement Strategies, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 28, 2024)


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Created January 1, 2005, Updated November 10, 2018