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Aggregating Atomic Clocks for Time-Stamping



Temur Saidkhodjaev, Jeff Voas, D. Richard Kuhn, Joanna DeFranco, Phil Laplante


A timestamp is a critical component in many applications, such as proof of transaction ordering or analyzing algorithm performance. This paper reports on a method called Verified Timestamping (VT) that improves the standard timestamp protocol. VT was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for use in algorithms where timestamp accuracy is critical. VT is an aggregation of the outputs from various atomic clocks to create a Timestamping Authority (TsA). The motivation for this research effort included malicious delay issues in Networks of Things [NST SP 800-183] as well as race conditions associated with the inclusion of new blocks into blockchains. This paper presents the TsA design and the results of VT, which indicate that atomic clock aggregation is not only possible, but a viable means to produce higher integrity timestamps at the milli-second level of performance.
Proceedings Title
2020 IEEE International Conference on Service Oriented Systems Engineering (SOSE)
Conference Dates
August 3-6, 2020
Conference Location
Oxford, UK


timestamp, network of things, performance, blockchain


Saidkhodjaev, T. , Voas, J. , Kuhn, D. , DeFranco, J. and Laplante, P. (2020), Aggregating Atomic Clocks for Time-Stamping, 2020 IEEE International Conference on Service Oriented Systems Engineering (SOSE), Oxford, UK, [online],, (Accessed July 14, 2024)


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Created August 2, 2020, Updated October 12, 2021