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Advanced Experimental Methods for Low-Temperature Magnetotransport Measurement of Novel Materials



Joseph A. Hagmann, Son T. Le, Curt A. Richter, David G. Seiler


Novel electronic materials are often produced for the first time by synthesis processes that yield bulk crystals (in contrast to single crystal thin film synthesis) for the purpose of exploratory materials research. Certain materials pose a challenge wherein the traditional bulk Hall bar device fabrication method is insufficient to produce a measureable device for sample transport measurement, principally because the single crystal size is too small to attach wire leads to the sample in a Hall bar configuration. This can be, for example, because the first batch of a new material synthesized yields very small single crystals or because flakes of samples of one to very few monolayers are desired. In order to enable rapid characterization of materials that may be carried out in parallel with improvements to their growth methodology, a method of device fabrication for very small samples has been devised to permit the characterization of novel materials as soon as a preliminary batch has been produced. A slight variation of this methodology is applicable to producing devices using exfoliated samples of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), as well as multilayer heterostructures of such materials. Here we present detailed protocols for the experimental device fabrication of fragments and flakes of novel materials with micron-sized dimensions onto substrate and subsequent measurement in a commercial superconducting magnet, dry helium close-cycle cryostat magnetotransport system at temperatures down to 0.300 K and magnetic fields up to 12 T.
Journal of Visualized Experiments


Nanoelectronics, Nanotechnology, Nano-fabrication, Electron beam lithography, Magnetotransport, Two-dimensional materials, Graphene, Electronic materials


Hagmann, J. , Le, S. , Richter, C. and Seiler, D. (2016), Advanced Experimental Methods for Low-Temperature Magnetotransport Measurement of Novel Materials, Journal of Visualized Experiments, [online], (Accessed April 15, 2024)
Created January 21, 2016, Updated November 10, 2018