Advanced Distillation Curve Measurement: Application to a Bio-Derived Crude Oil Prepared from Swine Manure
Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott, Beverly L. Smith
We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids This new method is a significant improvement over current approaches, featuring (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis), (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points that can be modeled with an equation of state, (3) temperature, volume and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for equation of state development, (4) consistency with a century of historical data, (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction, (6) trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction, (7) corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. We have applied the new method to the measurement of simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved H2S, and two crude oils. In the present contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to a bio-derived crude oil prepared from swine manure. One motivation behind the work was to precisely measure the distillation curve of the swine manure oil using our advanced distillation apparatus and compare the bio-derived oil to traditional crude oils. Then, the information content of the distillation was extended further with the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were each employed on each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each distillate volume fraction of crude oil, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. Importantly, we determined that the bio-derived swine manure oil contained both water and heavy metals.