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3-D Metallization by Damascene Electrodeposition



Thomas P. Moffat, Chang H. Lee, Daniel Josell


Electrodeposition is a key fabrication process used in the state-of-the-art multilevel Cu metallization of microelectronic interconnects from transistor to circuit board length scale. Recent electrochemical surface science and feature filling studies have provided mechanistic insight into the role of additives in superconformal film growth responsible for void-free filling of recessed surface features. These studies have shown that a physical model based on mass conservation of accelerating surfactant species during area change very effectively describes feature filling of Cu, Ag and Au from different electrolytes. At the same time the exploration of Damascene processing of ferromagnetic iron group alloys has revealed another mechanism of superconformal feature filling based on transient breakdown of the an inhibiting surface later formed from a single additive. The introduction of such new materials into Damascene ptocessing promises to open up new avenues for the design and construction of complex mult-functional 3-D structures and devices. This paper presents a selective and cursory review of some of the developments underway at NIST in this area.
E-Chem Magazine


Moffat, T. , Lee, C. and Josell, D. (2010), 3-D Metallization by Damascene Electrodeposition, E-Chem Magazine (Accessed April 18, 2024)
Created January 1, 2010, Updated February 26, 2020