Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb



Albrecht Bartels, Dirk Heinecke, Scott Diddams


For a decade the femtosecond laser based frequency comb has played a key role in high precision optical frequency metrology.While often referred to as a precise optical frequency ruler, its tick marks are in fact too densely spaced for direct observation and individual use, limiting important applications in spectroscopy, astronomy and ultrafast electromagnetic waveform control. Here, we report a novel femtosecond laser frequency comb with 10GHz repetition rate that creates a stabilized output spectrum with coverage from 470 nm to 1130 nm whose individual elements are directly resolved with a grating spectrometer.


Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser frequency comb, spectral broadening, 10 GHz repetition rate, octave-spanning frequency comb


Bartels, A. , Heinecke, D. and Diddams, S. (2009), 10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb, Science, [online], (Accessed July 22, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 29, 2009, Updated October 12, 2021