Objective: To develop and verify innovative sensing systems and take full advantage of existing ones such as smart meters, PMUs, Merging Units (Mus), and other intelligent electric devices (IEDs), to enable greater electric grid resiliency, reliability, flexibility, and sustainability through comprehensive wide-area and local-area monitoring and control of the smart grid. This is accomplished by accelerating the development and adoption of advanced sensors and measurement systems; development of conformance and interoperability tests for new standards for these devices; and development of sensor network interface specifications.
What is the Technical Idea?
This project proposes to characterize sensor systems in environments that realistically emulate real-world operating conditions. Using the advanced capabilities of the NIST SG Testbed, tests and performance requirements will be developed to characterize innovative sensors and measurement systems for the most demanding applications – in particular for dynamically changing conditions, rather than the steady-state tests primarily used to date. Innovative sensing systems will be developed and evaluated for measurement performance and interoperability.
What is the Research Plan?
Building on previous research evaluating the interoperability of PMUs and MUs, the research team will develop a logic model that is intended to provide a quantifiable metric for interoperability. This logic model will be applied to a system using IEC 61850 GOOSE, and will conduct experiments to provide data from MUs, relays, and/or other IEDs to validate the model. The usefulness of this work is that it will define and use logic models to calculate a quantifiable interoperability metric, an approach which stands in stark contrast to the subjective interoperability assessments used throughout industry today (e.g., the GWAC Interoperability Maturity Model). Merging unit performance will be characterized with associated uncertainties.
As part of a longer-term effort to develop—through IEEE PES Sensors Working Group—a guide for testing smart grid sensor and intelligent electronic device systems, the group will conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the components of dynamic uncertainty for smart measurement systems. The group will write three chapters for this guide.
Building off of FY19 research to evaluate smart meter measurement accuracy under high levels of harmonic distortion caused by solid-state and other lighting technologies, the project will investigate the effect behind-the-meter (i.e., customer facing residential wiring) electrical circuit impedance has on the transmission of these measured harmonics to the point of common coupling (e.g., electrical meter). This will be a substantial and innovative contribution to the research and metrology community’s understanding of how harmonics and other waveform distortions attenuate as distance from the source increases. Use of smart meters as voltage sensors will also be characterized to include the uncertainties with sinusoidal waveforms and typical DER waveforms in the laboratory.