Methods are disclosed for uniformly charging nanocrystals. Using these methods large area interfaces per nanocrystal can be formed for electrically powering or operating nanocrystals. The formed metal- interfaces, including metal- semiconductor and semiconductor- semiconductor, are structurally uniform resulting in nanodevices with identical electro-optical properties on very large areas. Specifically, we disc lose methods for facet-selective passivation of nanocrystals and facet-selective charge injection. Using these methods high-performance nanoscale light emitting diodes, lasers, and transistors can be fabricated with a broad range of applications ranging from deep-ultraviolet laser sources to trace detection of chemicals.
Our previous invention described how individual nanowires can be fabricated in-plane of a surface with controlled orientation and location. The current invention describes how such nanocrystals can be electrically powered up. This invention teaches how uniform interfaces can be formed with similar electro-optical properties. It shows how to selectively choose a nanocrystal facet for metallization or overgrowth with other semiconductors. It addresses the limited scale production of 2nd and 3rd generation semiconductor (non-silicon based) technologies and devices. The disclosed method doesn't have any limitation within the physical limits.
Risk of large scale production of nanoscale devices (2nd and 3rd generation semiconductors) has remained high in the past decade despite remarkable advances in the field. Basically, cost of creating a device that contains a sub-I00 nm structure is high and existing methods are not scalable. This is due to the lack of affordable platforms for small R&D volumes and industrial manufacturing. A good example is production of<=12 nm features in Si nanoelectronics that is only economically viable and affordable in massive production platforms and using highly advanced lithography machines. There are no alternative nanofabrication methods besides using these high-end lithography tools. The methods we have developed: I) do not need high resolution lithography and as such are low cost, and 2) enable high-throughput manufacturing. These are two important features for early-stage technology developers or industries with a growing market.