Researchers and city planners have faced problems and many unanswered questions in developing and reusing Internet of Things’ services. To aid these initiatives, NIST and university researchers reviewed different solutions proposed in literature for reuse of IoT services in their recently published IoT Capabilities Composition and Decomposition: A Systematic Review, in IEEE Xplore.
Developing IoT services or “service composition” is about pulling together IoT capabilities to develop a new IoT service that provides added value; “decomposition” aims to reuse some of those services for other purposes.
NIST and university researchers developed a step-by-step approach to composing and decomposing IoT services. This effort involved tracing these steps across a layered architecture, with devices in the bottom layer; composition-ready capabilities in the next layer; and composite capabilities providing value-added service in the top layer. Steps for composing services began at the architecture’s bottom and went up, and steps for decomposing services started at the top and went down.
Using this approach, researchers determined the problems and unanswered questions in composing and decomposing IoT services, which they addressed using a systematic literature review. This review resulted in a taxonomy which covers the three aspects of composing and decomposing services:
Formal Aspect: Provides standards, frameworks, reference architectures, and formal verification, which apply to composing and decomposing services.
Technical Aspect: Covers composing and decomposing services for domains; stakeholders’ concerns; real-world implementations; automation; and measurability of novel capabilities. The use of artificial intelligence/machine learning in composing smart services is a key contribution.
Quality of Service: Describes quality of service related to scalability, interoperability, and privacy in composing and decomposing services.
Additionally, researchers addressed essential questions related to composing and decomposing services, particularly those associated with scalability, interoperability, and privacy challenges.