Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Zn-Se-Cd-S interlayer formation at the CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-film solar cell interface



Marcus Baer, Ingrid Repins, Lothar Weinhardt, Jan Alsmeier, Sujitra Pookpanratana, Monika Blum, Wanli Yang, Clemens Heske, Regan Wilks, Rommel Noufi


The chemical structure of the CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) interface was studied by a combination of different surface-sensitive and near-surface bulk-sensitive electron and x-ray spectroscopies. We find a CdS deposition-induced "redistribution" of elements in the proximity of the CdS/CZTSe interface during interface formation in the chemical bath. In detail, Zn and Se from the CZTSe absorber and Cd and S from the buffer layer seem to form a Zn-Se-Cd-S - containing interlayer. As we do not find any evidence for the formation of S-Zn bonds, but indications for the presence of Cd-S,Se and Cd-Se-Zn bonds at the buffer/absorber interface, we propose the formation of a mixed Cd(S,Se) - (Cd,Zn)Se interlayer. As potential underlying chemical mechanism we suggest an ion exchange mediated by the amine complexes present in the chemical bath.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces


kesterites, photovoltaics, X-ray spectroscopy, XPS


Baer, M. , Repins, I. , Weinhardt, L. , Alsmeier, J. , Pookpanratana, S. , Blum, M. , Yang, W. , Heske, C. , Wilks, R. and Noufi, R. (2017), Zn-Se-Cd-S interlayer formation at the CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-film solar cell interface, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, [online], (Accessed July 22, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 13, 2017, Updated October 12, 2021