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X-Ray Topography



David R. Black, Gabrielle G. Long


The study of the interrelationships between processing, structure and properties of materials is fundamental to the field of materials science and engineering. The need to understand the microstructure of materials has driven the development of a wide variety of x-ray based characterization techniques. While X-ray topography is a very powerful tool for the evaluation of crystals for technological applications and for many areas of crystal and thin-film growth and processing, it is perhaps less well known and, therefore, has historically been underutilized in the United States. The aim of this guide is to raise the awareness of X-ray topography and, therefore, make modern x-ray topography techniques more accessible to materials scientists who would benefit by obtaining the rich variety of microstructural information it offers. The basic principles and practical aspects of topography are discussed and demonstrated through examples to help illustrate the diverse applications of this technique.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 960-10
Report Number


Black, D. and Long, G. (2004), X-Ray Topography, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created February 4, 2004, Updated February 19, 2017